The five main components of reading are:
Phonemic awareness impacts meaningful reading, and thus it is critical for students to develop this skill. When a student is able to understand that the word 'cat' has three sounds, or phonemes, /k/ /a/ /t/, they've demonstrated their phonemic awareness.
Phonemes are written down as graphemes. Graphemes may be single letters (a, t, k, e, or n) or clusters of letters that represent single sounds (th, sh, oo, ough, or ck).
Phonemes include all the sounds in a language that can be represented by letters.
Some skills involved in phonemic awareness include:
Identifying specific sounds at the beginning, middle, and end of words.For example, what is the first sound in the word “Table”
Blending sounds For example, joining /s/ and /it/ to form sit
Making a new word by adding a phoneme to a word. For example, deriving what work is created when adding /s/ to the word “and”
Learning about phonics can help students read and spell easily and accurately. It involves recognizing letter-sound relationships and using those relationships to read connected text.An example of Phonics is learning about the various letter combinations that can be used for the sound /k/.
Fluency is the accurate and rapid recognition of words in a text and using phrasing and emphasis in a way that makes what is read sound like spoken language.Fluency is important for reading comprehension, because it frees up working memory in the brain, providing an opportunity for students to comprehend what they are reading.
Vocabulary refers to the words that we use in reading, writing, listening and speaking. A good vocabulary helps ease word recognition, and thus makes reading easier.
Comprehension is the final goal of reading. This involves being able to connect what has been read to what the reader knows, constructing meaning that is reasonable and accurate, and contemplating this information until the meaning is understood.